One can say that India is the only country in the world, where people have surnames based on the states that they live in. Let us see some common surnames that are in practice in some of the major states herewith.
Maharashtra – Aadekar, Agnihotri, Apte, Ambedkar, Borkar, Bendre, Chitale, Chavan, Deshpande, Desai, Dixit, Gowatrikar,Jadhav,Joshi, Kanitkar, Lokhande, Manjrekar, Muzumdar, Powar, Pujari, Shirke, Tendulkar, Tambe etc.
Punjab – Ahluwalia, Ahuja, Bedi, Dhillon, Gill, Gulati, Juneja, Kapoor, Malhotra, Singh, Sethi, Soni, Talwar, Walia
Haryana – Mehra, Sharma, Kundu, Ahlawat, Bhardwaj
West Bengal – Banerjee, Chatterjee, Das, Dutta, Dey, Burman, Ganguly, Gangopadhyay, Chakraborty, Mukherjee
Gujarat – Amin, Doshi, Gandhi, Gaekwad, Gupta, Lal, Mistry, Mehta, Patel, Trivedi, Vyas
Madhya Pradesh – Goyal, Chouhan, Jaitley, Patel, Chaubey
Orissa – Behera, Chowdhury, Dehuri, Guru, Hati, Harijan, Kar, Khosla,Kulu, Mahapatra, Mohanty, Mallick, Nayak, Ojha,Panigrahy, Pujari, Pusika, Rath, Sahoo, Satapathy, Tripathy
Assam – Barua, Bora, Gogoi, Goswami, Thakore, Baroova
Chhattisgarh – Sahu, Verma, Suryavanshi, Nishad, Bhoi, Chandrakar
Jammu and Kashmir – Ahmed, Bhatt, Dubey, Pandit, Raina, Handoo, Tickoo, Kak, Kakapuri
Manipur - Ajmol, Brahmacharimayum, Chiru, Chakpram, Elam, Hungyo, Irom, Koirao, Laishram, Mao, Nepram, Oinam, Purum, Rupam, Sailo, Seram, Senjam, Salam, Sumpi
Tamil Nadu – Iyer, Iyengar, Chettiar, Devar, Gounder, Mudaliyar, Naicker, Udayar, Vellalar, Viswakarma
Andhra Pradesh – Rao, Naidu, Reddy, Raju, Sharma, Shastri, Yadav,
Karnataka – Adiga, Hegde, Chetti, Eshwar, Gowda, Hebbar, Murthy, Prasad, Yadav
Kerala – Kutty, Menon, Nair, Panicker, Nambiar, Namboodhiri, Pillai, Pisharody, Unni, Variar, Varma
Some of the Muslim surnames that are commonly used across the states are Abdul, Abdullah, Abbas, Afzal, Ahmad, Akram, Ali, Amin, Azad, Baig, Basha, Begum, Bashir, Dawood, Dada, Ebrahim, Eid, Farid, Farooq, Fayad,Ghazal, Ghani, Habeeb, Hakeem, Hamid, Hafeez, Hashim, Hussain, Ismail, Iqbal, Jaffer, Javed, Khan, Khalid, Kazi, Khawaja, Lodi, Latif, Mahmood, Majid, Mansoor, Miah,Masood, Sayed, Shaikh, Siddique.
Some of the Christian surnames that are commonly used across the states are Alberto, Anthony, Barros, Britto, Branco, Costa, Cruz, D’Silva, D’Souza, D’Cruz, Estrocio, Fernandez, Franco, Fortes, Gomes, Gonsalves, Henriques, Lawrence, Luis, Lesmos, Lynn, Madrid, Martin, Miranda, Nazareth, Pinheiro, Pereira, Pinto, Rodrigues, Rosario, Silva, Simon.
The above mentioned are some of the common surnames that are used in India. Though there are many more surnames in the country, a list of most widely used ones are listed above.